Sociometric procedure can be performed in two forms: non-parametric and parametric.
Support for effective management at all levels. At critical moments, leaders are the main source of information.
Active countermeasures are taken depending on the audience in which the rumor spreads. With low confidence in the source of information, the direct selection of the plot to expose it can, conversely, cause the circulation of rumors. In this case – not to mention the rumor and its plot, to find an indirect reason for the mass transmission of information, the content of which would be radically contrary to the content of the rumor.
With high confidence in the source of information, direct and reasoned refutation of the rumor is more effective and, as a rule, puts an end to its circulation.
When working with the source of rumors, it is advisable to follow these tactics:
Use fewer big rebuttals and statements, more specific questions and concise disagreements. For example, the following phrases: “I think this is not true”; “If, as you’ve noticed, it’s just a rumor, let’s not waste time on it.” Specifically, ask the source of the rumors about how he knows this message. For example, in such phrases: “I did not know that. How do you know that? ”; “And who told you about it?”; “I think I need to talk to this person separately.” Make the source of the rumors convince you that the rumors are credible. For example, the phrases: “Why do you think that what you said is true?”; “What is the basis of your belief that this is true?”; “Does anyone really want it that way or is it really the case?”
Thus, the knowledge of the manager of the causes and conditions of rumors, the main preventive and active countermeasures allows you to create a healthy socio-psychological atmosphere in the organization, to strengthen trust between employees.
Sociometry as a method of diagnosis. Features of referentometry
The essence of sociometry and its possibilities. The whole set of relationships in the organization can be divided into formal (formal) and informal (informal). They are based on the requirements of a number of legal documents (orders, instructions, instructions, etc.), as well as the rules and regulations of etiquette. Business relationships do not end with contacts with employees, where everyone is not just a teacher Ivanov, educator Petrov, etc., but a person with his own character, personal characteristics, interests, tastes, manner of behavior.
In the very business environment, interpersonal relationships are formed between people in one way or another: we are especially attracted to someone, we may dislike someone. And these personal relationships can not but affect the general atmosphere in the organization, the general character, style, tone of the relationship. That is why the organization of effective interpersonal communication, the creation of a favorable psychological mood of people is so important.
Psychological processes occurring in the organization have been studied for decades. Usually the main attention is paid to official relations in the organizational structure, such a phenomenon as friendship. However, it turned out that this was clearly not enough. Without clarifying the existing personal relationships in the organization, this portrait will be incomplete.
The main method of diagnosing interpersonal relationships is usually sociometry. The term “sociometry” is formed from two Latin roots – socius – comrade, accomplice, companion and metrum – dimension. The founder of sociometry is the American psychiatrist and social psychologist J. Moreno. He believed that the set of interpersonal relationships in the group is the primary socio-psychological structure, the essence of which largely determines not only the holistic characteristics of the group, but also the true state of man.
According to his theoretical concept, in society we can distinguish two structures: macrostructure – a kind of “spatial” placement of people in different processes of their lives and microstructure – psychological relationships that develop in a person with his immediate environment, ie interpersonal relationships.
Microstructure and macrostructure of itemthey must be in harmony, that is, people must be so “arranged” in the processes of their life that their immediate and indirect environment is always acceptable to them. To do this, it is necessary to carry out not a social but a sociometric revolution, ie to make such a change in macro- and microstructures that will lead to their ideal compliance on the scale of society as a whole.
Sociometry is a socio-psychological method of studying the system of personal relationships in a group, an organization that involves the researcher’s choice to test other members of the group for different areas of joint activities. Thus, sociometry is based on a specific type of survey. Therefore, the method of sociometry is often called a sociometric survey.
Like any method, sociometry has its advantages and disadvantages. The obvious advantages are as follows:
sociometry filled the vacuum that emerged as a result of the lack of other methods to study the relationship; sociometry gave results in the form of quantitative indices in a field that was considered not to be traditionally formalized; sociometric survey is relatively simple in both conducting and analyzing the results.
The disadvantages of the method of sociometry include the following:
specificity and situationality of the revealed picture (fixation of mainly emotional relations, which are expressed in likes and dislikes; sincere motives of elections, etc. are not revealed); the possibility of intentional distortion of the results in a non-anonymous test; limited opportunities, in particular due to the dynamics of the relationship, which is difficult to grasp.
What allows you to detect a sociometric survey? First, sociometry allows to determine the state of relations in the organization and on this basis to identify its informal structure (microgroups, informal leaders, sociometric status of each employee, his needs for communication and psychological compatibility with others, etc.).
Secondly, sociometry allows you to assess the authority of leaders at different levels, to identify their place in the informal structure of the organization.
Third, the sociometric survey allows to determine the level of group cohesion and disunity of different units of the organization and the organization as a whole.
Fourth, sociometry allows you to perform a psychotherapeutic function. Participation in a sociometric survey encourages subjects to further analyze their relationships with other employees and often stimulates the correction of their own behavior.
The procedure for conducting a sociometric survey. The essence of sociometry is to identify a system of “likes” and “dislikes” between employees, ie to identify a system of emotional relationships in the organization. This detection is achieved by each participant in the survey of certain elections from the entire composition of any unit of the organization according to the specified criteria. All data on such elections are entered in a special table – the socio-matrix and are presented in the form of a special chart (sociogram). After that, various sociometric indices are calculated, both individual and group.
Conducting a sociometric survey is preceded by some preparatory work. It is necessary to determine the criteria (grounds) for selection and the number of elections. Let’s explain what it is.
The criteria (grounds) of choice in sociometry are the question of a person’s desire to participate in a certain activity with someone. Their form is questions such as: “Who would you like to be with …?”, To which everyone answers. They can be attributed to any area of human relations.
Criteria can be:
positive (“Who would you like to spend the weekend with?”); negative (“If you had the opportunity, which of your employees would you transfer to another department?”); dichotomous, which are focused on superiority and denial at the same time (“In the case of reorganization of the institution with which of your colleagues you would like to get into the same department, and with whom you would not like?”).
In order https://123helpme.me/buy-compare-and-contrast-essay/ to properly select the criteria, and therefore competently conduct research, it is necessary to comply with a number of requirements.
The proposed criteria should be of interest to the whole team. A criterion such as “Who would you like to learn the C ++ programming language with together?” Would be clearly unfortunate for a group not involved in the practical use of programming languages. The criterion should reflect the relationship between employees and allow the choice of a colleague. Criterion such as: “Is there life on Mars?” also not suitable. The criterion must describe the specific and real situation for the selection of a colleague. The number of criteria depends on how long the group members have known each other (the longer the contact, the more criteria can be used), but it should not exceed 5-7.
When conducting sociometry, at least three criteria are used, covering the main areas of activity of the employee: service-functional, moral and extra-service (permit). Based on this, there are strong and weak criteria. The strong relate to the most important area of human activity, which requires long and close communication.
Sociometric procedure can be performed in two forms: non-parametric and parametric. A non-parametric form of sociometry is that the researcher selects according to a given criterion as many people as he deems necessary (ie there are no restrictions on the choice). This form allows us to identify the so-called emotional expansiveness (expansive, ie one that uncontrollably, impulsively, violently expresses its feelings – Ed.) Everyone and the emotional component of the relationship of all team members. In addition, it allows you to make a slice of the diversity of interpersonal relationships in the organization.
But with a large number of employees in the surveyed department of interpersonal relationships when using this form is so much that the process of determining them takes a long time and without the use of computer technology becomes almost impossible. When using a non-parametric sociometry procedure, there is a greater probability of obtaining a random choice (many employees in this case write: “I choose everyone” (?!)).
The parametric form of sociometry is that the subjects are asked to choose a strictly fixed number of all team members.